Central nervous system
When nicotine reaches a person’s nervous system, it causes the nervous system to become more sensitive and stimulated. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and heart rate, faster respiration and constriction of the arteries. These are all short-term effects of smoking, but they’re the effects people notice most. However, the long-term effects of smoking on the nervous system are quite dangerous., the nervous system can be damaged by long-term exposure to nicotine, making a person more susceptible to conditions such as muscular sclerosis. If a person already has a nervous system disorder, smoking can aggravate that disease and possibly make it worse.
A healthy respiratory system is designed to protect the lungs from occasional inhalation of smoke, dust and other harmful substances. Cigarette smoking not only damages its protective mechanism but continues to assault it with harmful material daily. Secondhand smoke carries similar dangers.
Nicotine and other substances in tobacco smoke immediately affect the cardiovascular systems of smokers and those who inhale the secondhand smoke. Active cigarette smoking elevates the heart rate and blood pressure for up to 20 minutes after tobacco use, says the American Lung Association.
Integumentary system (skin, hair, and nails)
Some of the more obvious signs of smoking involve the skin. The substances in tobacco smoke actually change the structure of your skin. Smoking causes skin discoloration, wrinkles, and premature aging. Your fingernails and the skin on your fingers may have yellow staining from holding cigarettes. Smokers usually develop yellow or brown stains on their teeth. Hair holds on to the smell of tobacco long after you put your cigarette out. It even clings to non-smokers.
Recent studies show a direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density. Smoking is one of many factors including weight, alcohol consumption, and activity level that increase your risk for osteoporosis, a condition in which bones weaken and become more likely to fracture.
Significant bone loss has been found in older women and men who smoke. Quitting smoking appears to reduce the risk for low bone mass and fractures. However, it may take several years to lower a former smoker’s risk.
In addition, smoking from an early age puts women at even higher risk for osteoporosis. Smoking lowers the level of the hormone estrogen in your body, which can cause you to go through menopause earlier, boosting your risk for osteoporosis.